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Earth Summit

Earth Summit is the name given to the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development since the Rio conference in 1992. The second Earth Summit was held in Johannesburg in 2002.
(in "Sustainable Development")

Ecological Footprint

The ecological footprint is a measure of how much biologically productive land and water area an individual, a city, a country, a region, or humankind uses to produce the resources it consumes and to absorb the waste it generates, using prevailing technology and resource management.
(in "Sustainable Development")

Economic efficiency

Efficiency of economic and technological activities, fostering investment and productivity, economic growth, economic output potential.
(in "Sustainable Development")

Economic growth

Quantitative change or expansion in a country's economy. It is conventionally measured as the percentage increase in gross domestic product (GDP) or gross national product (GNP) over one year.
(in "Describing Poverty")

Economic violence

Economic violence is a term used to describe violence cause through the economic system. Originally it was used to qualify the difference of status between owner and producer in Marxist theory, but it has been extended to qualify the effects specific economic policies (corporate or public) can have on individuals or groups, such as increasing inequalities, inefficient provision of basic goods and services or oligarchic concentration of resources.
(in "Violence and (In)Security in Urban Space")


In a social scientific understanding, the embeddedness of an actor or an action characterises its bind to its social environment.
(in "Actor-Orientation: The Societal Level")
(in "Actor-Orientation: Surrounding Conditions")


Resources that people have the right to access.
(in "Methodologies and Methods of Livelihoods Research")

Environmental degradation

Environmental degradation refers to the decreasing of a local ecosystem or of the biosphere as a whole as a result of human activity. Environmental degradation occurs when natural resources are being consumed faster than nature can replenish them or when polluting activities or even natural disasters destroy these resources.
(in "Sustainable Development")

Environmental responsibility

The ability to use natural resources without undermining the equilibrium and integrity of ecosystems, and to reduce the burden on the environment. Environmental sustainability is achieved when the productivity of life-supporting natural resources is conserved or enhanced for use by future generations. (DFID)
(in "Sustainable Development")

Environmental violence

Environmental violence is violence caused to the environment such as pollution or depletion. It is also a form of violence towards the people who live in or use an affected environment either because it represents a danger for their health, deprives them from resources or does not allow them to have a decent living.
(in "Violence and (In)Security in Urban Space")

Ethnic niches/enclaves

A distinct territorial, cultural, or social unit enclosed within or as if within foreign territory. On the one hand the enclave or niche represents a network that increases the opportunities for gainful trade in the labour market and disseminates information on job opportunities, and constitutes an environment where the immigrant is less exposed to the discrimination encountered elsewhere on the labour market. On the other hand the ethnic enclave or niche provides less interaction with natives and reduces the incentives for acquiring, e.g., language skills. The enclave thus can hinder the move to better jobs and reduces earnings in the longer run.
(in "Migration")


Exclusion refers to a process whereby some socio-economic groups are relatively – sometimes even absolutely – disempowered and pauperised by the globalisation process; those on the margins of the ‘system’ are increasingly left behind. The fact that they remain where they are means that in practice they actually lose ground and are increasingly excluded from the value- and wealth-generating processes happening at the core of the system (see also inclusion).
(in "Globalisation Processes B")
(in "Access and Institutional Context")

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