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Gated communities

Gated communities are restricted-access residential developments whereby public spaces are privatised. The term refers to a physical area that is fenced or walled-off from its surroundings. There are many types of gated community with differing degrees of amenities, exclusivity and security.
(in "Violence and (In)Security in Urban Space")


Gender refers to the array of socially constructed roles and relationships, personality traits, attitudes, behaviours, values, relative power and influence that society ascribes to the two sexes on a differential basis. Whereas biological sex is determined by genetic and anatomical characteristics, gender is an acquired identity that is learned, changes over time, and varies widely within and across cultures. Gender is relational and refers not simply to women or men but to the relationship between them. (INSTRAW 2004)
(in "Gender and Poverty")
(in "Gender, Poverty and Employment")


Gentrification is the rehabilitation of impoverished urban areas, usually those located in historical city centres, through the restoration of habitat buildings and provision of services for upper middle class groups. Very often, the former inhabitants of a gentrified area are forced to relocate elsewhere, in some case because they are evicted, but more often because rents and the general cost of living rise up.
(in "iolence and (In)Security in Urban Space")


Despite differences of opinion on the forms it may take or the normative value of its outcomes, globalisation is defined as the growing interdependence of countries worldwide through increasing volume and variety of cross-border economic transactions, free international capital flows, and more rapid and widespread diffusion of technology as well as political and cultural patterns.
(in "Sustainable Development")


Glocalisation is a term that describes a convergence of scales that, on the one hand, are more global than the national and, on the other, more local. The term was initially used when a product or service with global distribution was customised to suit local laws or culture. In a wider context, it stands for a process by which global concepts and ideas are adapted to a specific local context.
(in "Globalisation Processes B")


(in "Describing Poverty")

GNP per capita

A country's Gross National Product (GNP) divided by its population. Shows the income each person would have were GNP to be divided equally. Also called income per capita. GNP per capita is a useful measure of economic productivity, but by itself it does not measure people's well-being or a country's development success. Moreover, it does not show how equally or unequally a country's income is distributed among its citizens (see also Gross National Product).
(in "Describing Poverty")

Gross Domestic Product (GDP)

The value of all final goods and services produced in a country in one year. Gross domestic product is an aggregate measure of production equal to the sum of the gross values of all resident institutional units engaged in production (plus any taxes, and minus any subsidies, on products not included in the value of their outputs). The sum of the final uses of goods and services (all uses except intermediate consumption) measured in purchasers' prices, less the value of imports of goods and services, or the sum of primary incomes distributed by resident producer units (OECD 01.09.2006).
(in "Describing Poverty")

Gross National Product (GNP)

Gross National Product (GNP) and Gross National Income (GNP) are the same. Gross National Product (GNP) is GDP minus net taxes on production and imports and minus employee compensation and property income payable to the rest of the world, plus the corresponding items receivable from the rest of the world (in other words, GDP less primary incomes payable to non-resident units plus primary incomes receivable from non-resident units). An alternative approach to measuring GNP at market prices is as the aggregate value of the balances of gross primary income for all sectors (note that gross national income is identical to gross national product as previously commonly used in national accounts) (OECD 01.09.2006).
(in "Describing Poverty")

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