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Landlocked Developing Country (LLDC)

Landlocked developing countries are developing countries that have no access to the sea.
(in "Describing Poverty")

Law of comparative advantage

The law or theory of comparative advantage describes trade patterns under the assumption that static conditions hold the factors of production in fixed supply. The main results are that:

  • (I) any country can increase its welfare by trading;
  • (II) the smaller the country, the greater this potential gain from trade is; and
  • (III) a country will gain most by exporting commodities that it produces the most intensively using factors of production it has in abundance, while importing goods that it could only produce using scarcer factors of production.

(in "Development Theories")

Least developed country (LDC)

This term refers to a developing country without significant economic growth, with a very low per capita income and a low literacy rate.
(in "Describing Poverty")

Legal pluralism

The co-existence and interaction of multiple (overlapping) legal orders within a social setting or domain of social life.
(in "Livelihoods Perspective III")

Life expectancy at birth

The number of years a newborn baby would live if, at every age, the chances of his/her survival were the same as they were for that age in the year of his/her birth. The change in this indicator reflects changes in the overall health of a country's population, in people's living conditions and in the quality of healthcare.
(in "Describing Poverty")

Literacy rate

The literacy rate refers to the percentage of individuals who are able to read and write at a level that allows full participation in a society (for instance understanding administrative documents, being able to read operation instruction, etc.).
(in "Describing Poverty")


The term ‘livelihood’ refers to all the different elements that contribute to, or affect, the ability of people to ensure a living for themselves and their household. A livelihood comprises the capabilities, assets and activities required for a means of living. It includes people’s values and aspirations as well as their immediate material needs for living. A livelihood is sustainable if it allows people to cope with and recover from stress and shock and maintain or enhance their capabilities and assets, without undermining the natural resource base and the potential for sustainable economic, socio-cultural and political development.
(in "Theorising Inequality and Change")
(in "Actor-Orientation: The Individual Level")
(in "Livelihood Research Perspective - Assets, Practices, and Wellbeing")
(in "Migration")

Local Agenda 21

Local Agenda 21 are local initiatives taken at sub-national government levels (usually municipalities) to implement the principles of the Agenda 21 (see Agenda 21)
(in "Sustainable Development")

Low-income countries

Classified by the World Bank as countries whose GNP per capita is $765 or less.
(in "Describing Poverty")

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