A - B - C - D - E - F - G - H - I - J - K - L - M - N - O - P - Q - R - S - T - U - V - W - X - Y - Z

Participant observation

Participant observation is a method of observation whereby the observer engages directly with the subjects he/she is studying. This engagement can range from attending activities with the subjects under study right up to living with them or even undertaking projects together with them.
(in "Globalisation Processes B")

Participatory Poverty Assessment (PPA)

A participatory poverty assessment is analysis of poverty that includes the views of the poor people in its definition of poverty as well as in its strategies to reduce it.
(in "Describing Poverty")


“Poverty is defined relative to the standards of living in a society at a specific time. People live in poverty when they are denied an income sufficient for their material needs and when these circumstances exclude them from taking part in activities which are an accepted part of daily life in that society." (Scottish Poverty Information Unit).
Au LaSUR, nous considérerons aussi d’autres aspects de la pauvreté (comme les dimensions sociales, culturelles, relationnelles et les impacts directs et indirects de la pauvreté sur la santé, la nourriture, l’éducation etc., ce qui lie la pauvreté avec le concept de vulnérabilité (vulnerability).
(in "Habitat and Urban Development")


A member of the class constituted by small farmers, tenants and sharecroppers, and labourers on the land where they form the main labour force in agriculture.
(in "Actor-Orientation: The Individual Level")(in "Actor-Orientation: Surrounding Conditions")

Peasant societies

  1. Peasant societies’ livelihoods are primarily - but not exclusively - derived from farming, normally consisting of a combination of crop-farming and livestock production.
  2. The household owns its own means of production, especially land, or at least has rights of access to land.
  3. Agricultural production is based primarily - but not exclusively - on household labour.
  4. Household activities are balanced between production and consumption, with inputs reflecting aspects of both production and consumption.
  5. Production reflects varying levels of subsistence.
(Wiesmann 1998, p. 48/49)

(in "Actor-Orientation: The Societal Level")


The peasant class; the condition of being a peasant.
(in "Actor-Orientation: The Individual Level")


In social sciences, penalisation refers to the process by witch more and more socially divergent attitudes, petty crimes and small delinquency are receiving a penal treatment (response).
(in "Violence and (In)Security in Urban Space")

Permanent migration

A permanent movement of an individual between different geographical units (for example emigration).
(in "Migration")

Physical capital/resource

Physical capital is a category of livelihood assets. It comprises the basic infrastructure and physical goods that support livelihoods. Infrastructure consists of the physical environment that helps people’s to meet their basic needs and to be more productive.
(in "Livelihood Research Perspective - Assets, Practices, and Wellbeing")


Post-materialism refers to a state of society in which the basic needs such as food, clothing or housing are mostly covered without having to struggle for it and an abundance of material goods is available. It is assumed that in these type of societies the individuals’ focus shift from the struggle for material goods and strive for the access to non-material goods such as freedom, well being or self accomplishment.
(in "Globalisation Processes A")


Poverty defines the living conditions of individuals or groups lacking the resources to reach a minimum standard of well-being. These can be material resources (such as sufficient and healthy nutrition, housing…) or immaterial resources (such as education, political power, social status and ability to interact with other members of society).
(in "Describing Poverty")

Property rights

Property rights specify the claims and related obligations of different actors – individuals or groups – to the benefits of a resource. In short, property rights govern who can do what with resources.
(in "Access and Institutional Context")

Pull factors

A feature or event that attracts a person to move to another area (for example higher income, political stability, less risks etc.).
(in "Migration")

Push factors

A feature or event that pushes a person away from or encourages a person to leave his or her current residence (for example no job opportunities, poverty, repressive culture etc.)
(in "Migration")

Go to previous page Go to top Go to next page