Gated Communities II

Although there have always been communities that seek to escape the negative aspects of urbanisation (Low 2001), the contemporary gated community phenomenon arose in the USA during the last quarter of the 20th century, first with retirement communities and then, in the 1990s, spread more widely, including to other countries. It is also worth noting that the number of gated communities around the world has grown with the rise of neo-liberal policies and social inequality.

For example, the intertwined forces of economic globalisation and local institutional changes have led to the development of gated communities in Beijing. These processes have produced a wealthy local upper class and, with the increase in foreign investment, have also attracted expatriate workers who were not prepared to live in common Chinese housing.
These categories of people have generated an increased demand for gated residencies. The high concentration of expatriate workers in some of these residences (Giroir 2003) give them a touch of the extra-territorial Western concessions of early 20th century China.

Click on the link in the right-hand column and take a look at the page presenting the Riviera private community:

What strikes you about this page?
Click on the "Estate management office" button in the top of the page and read some of the community's rules (Circulars).

Because gated communities are strongly associated with the US suburban model of urbanisation, their development in Europe has been far slower. However, as in the US, gated communities can now be found in major European cities such as London. The termgentrification of old industrial areas with high levels of poverty sometimes occurs through the development of gated communities for wealthier groups, such as the Bow Quarter in East London which is located in a relatively poor, old industrial area.

Look at the map of the Bow Quarter in the right-hand column:

Then click on the first link to read the introduction page of the residence:

The second link shows the security rules applied within the community:

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